What Causes Malnutrition In Pregnancy?

November 11th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in Low-Resource Healthcare Pearls|


Malnutrition especially impacts pregnant women around the globe. The challenges of food security, poverty, anemia, malnutrition, low birth weight, and failure to thrive are all inextricably interwoven. Worldwide, the effect of protein-calorie malnutrition is correlated with low-birth-weight infants, maternal anemia, preterm labor, immune suppression, and loss of work productivity.


Maternal causes of newborn low birth weight include all EXCEPT which ONE of the following?


A. Protein malnutrition

B. Intestinal malabsorption

C. Iron deficiency anemia

D. B vitamin deficiency anemia

E. Eggs and beans as primary source of dietary protein


Explanation: Malnutrition and anemia are challenging for any person, but the added complication during pregnancy is that all forms of malnutrition and anemia can reduce fetal growth. Treating malnutrition and anemia with supplementation of calories, protein, iron, and vitamin B improves fetal growth and birth outcomes. Soybeans, black beans, pinto beans, lentils, white beans, and black-eyed peas are among the variety of superb bean protein sources. The correct answer is E: Eggs and beans as primary source of dietary protein.

Dr Luc: Ebola Fighter and INMED Grad in Action

October 28th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Grads In Action|


“Ebola and HIV/AIDS were the reasons for me coming to Africa. I’ve been through 4 Ebola outbreaks so far,” says Luc Victor, UN physician in east Africa. “In the last 36 days we’ve had 109 confirmed cases of Ebola and 51 deaths.” Sadly, 15 of these deaths were among healthcare personnel. But Dr. Victor is undeterred. “I have been living and working in the African continent since 2006. I always wanted a career in healthcare. I also wanted a job that involved the international humanitarian relief and the international diplomatic spheres.” In pursuit of these opportunities, Dr. Victor earned the  INMED Professional Certificate in International Medicine and Public Health, and is now about to complete the Master’s Degree in International Health.


“Studying international public health definitely gave me further depth and breadth in my current career path,” observes Dr. Victor. “It’s really heartbreaking when it comes to protection of civilians.  The innocent indeed are the first and sometimes the only ones that suffer. Although healthcare should not necessarily involve politics and diplomacy, in peacekeeping the politics and diplomacy are needed to make sure everyone is safe from the most exigent harm – the scourge of war, unrest, and diseases like Ebola that kill two-thirds of people infected.”


Can You Manage This Child’s Malnutrition?

October 14th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in Low-Resource Healthcare Pearls|


The five-year-old child in this photo presents to your health center in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. History is obtained from family members, who explain that eight months ago their farm was attacked by bandits. The family has been on the move by foot since then, seeking asylum and being frequently harassed. No one in the family, including this child named Aamir, has eaten regularly in months. What’s more, in recent days Aamir has developed fever, diarrhea, and lethargy.


Upon initial physical examination you note that Aamir is poorly responsive to stimulation. His temperature is 38 degrees C, respirations are 30 per minute, pulse is 90 bpm, and blood pressure is unobtainable. He has a mid-upper arm circumference of 107mm, hair discoloration that is red in color, and loss of adipose tissue with no peripheral edema. He has no appetite and refuses to drink. Aamir’s mid-arm circumference and skin fold thickness measurements are well below the norm. You have no laboratory or radiology support for further investigation.


The first priority in the management of this child with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is which ONE of the following:


A  Emergency treatment of coexisting medical illnesses.

B  Assignment to a community-based renutrition program.

C  Administration of vitamin A, zinc, and iron supplements.

D  Refeeding 100 kcal/kg/day with standard WHO ready-to-eat food (RUTF).

E  Rehydration with 10ml/kg/hr of half-strength WHO Oral Rehydration Solution by mouth or nasogastric feeding.


Explanation: The management of SAM can be separated into two stages. The first stage is stabilization: immediately correct hydration and acid-base alterations. The second stage is rehabilitation. Rehabilitation can begin as soon as medical problems are reasonably stable and rehydration is complete. It may be necessary to begin initial refeeding slowly in persons who have SAM because of damage to the intestinal mucosa. During rehabilitation, micronutrient supplements and attention to any coexisting medical illnesses may also be indicated. The correct answer is E.


“Why Do I Need the Master’s Degree in International Health?”

September 30th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Action Steps For You|


“You want to do international healthcare? Then just go! You don’t need any special skill.” These words from my esteemed medical professor were spoken from his inexperience. Working to improve health in low-resource, cross-cultural communities requires more than simply a willingness to “go.” Imagine the challenges you would face this week serving amid cholera in Haiti, Ebola in Congo, or trauma injuries in Ukraine or Florida. Effectiveness in such settings also requires immense expertise.


To this end, INMED offers the Master’s Degree in International Health (MIH). This 32-credit hour program is specifically designed for healthcare professionals and healthcare profession students to work with distinction under such challenges. The MIH is built on our 20-year’s providing international health education and service-learning in 25 nations. Equipped in this way, recipients of the MIH are prepared to lead comprehensive health promotion and disease intervention efforts in the world’s very most difficult settings


The MIH total tuition is currently $8704, and payment is made only each time one registers for a course. Most MIH learners take one course at a time, finishing the degree in about 18 months. In addition to course work and a scholarly project, the degree includes an international service-learning (rotation) at an INMED Training Site in medicine, nursing, or public health. The entire degree, except the service-learning, can be done online if desired. Please visit the MIH FAQs.


Mark Wardle is a professor at Rocky Vista University and is also earning the MIH. “I have been involved with caring for vulnerable populations since before I started medical school. I discovered INMED in 2020, and have been thrilled with my interactions with them. The knowledge and skills taught by INMED not only helped to fill gaps in my global health experience but have inspired me more than I can say. INMED has helped me grow as a physician, a professor, a researcher, and as a person. I can’t thank them enough!”


Do you want to do serious good in the field of international healthcare? Then please go serve with honor in Haiti, Congo, Ukraine, or Florida. But go equipped. Go with the Master’s Degree in International Health.

Judy Weimer, Nurses International, and INMED Grads in Action!

September 16th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Grads In Action|


“It’s Judy Weimer from your 2021 Fall Professional Certificate Course in International Nursing and Public Health.  I wanted to let you know how helpful it has been to me!  I am managing the conversion of a Med-Surg course for Nurses International, which will allow open access to everyone!  I am going to develop a unit on diseases of poverty, similar to the INMED.  I also made a presentation of this subject for Global Response Management, the group I served with in Reynosa, Mexico, among the migrants seeking safety and refuge.”


The excitement in Judy Weimer’s words is palpable! Like most people in the field of healthcare for marginalized people, she is altruistic, energetics, and visionary. Following her experience caring for migrants on the border, Judy recognized a need to update her skills, leading to her course registration with INMED. Judy also equipped herself with INMED training in ultrasound, newborn resuscitation, and newborn baby care.


Like myself, Judy is passionate about multiplying skill capacity among other healthcare professionals. She continues, “I am honored to lead the efforts of getting our Medical-Surgical class online, and I’m especially pleased with the new lessons on diseases of poverty and maternal-newborn care. Feeling a bit overwhelmed by the project, but I’m grateful for your input as we work diligently to share these essential nursing skills worldwide!”


2022 Roatan Learn and Serve Conference

September 2nd, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Action Steps For You|


“Equipping Healthcare Professional at Clinica Esperanza, Roatan, Honduras”


Join INMED faculty for an educational conference and service experience on the island of Roatan, off the northern coast of Honduras! Learn nuances of emergency care alongside Honduran medical personnel, earning 9 hours of Continuing Medical Education. Serve at the renowned Clinica Esperanza primary care facility, where Spanish is useful but not required. And enjoy the island’s sightseeing and snorkeling opportunities.


Despite its remarkable beaches and beautiful weather, many Roatan residents live in sustained poverty and suffer from common chronic diseases, as well as from malaria, dengue, intestinal parasites, malnutrition, and sexually transmitted illnesses. Roatan’s preexisting medical care system consists only of overburdened government facilities that lack the most basic resources. Clinica Esperanza’s vision is to provide the finest medical care possible to all Roatan residents, regardless of income status. The clinic was launched in 2001 and now performs over 2,500 consultations a month. The clinic is also progressively adding additional services, including laboratory, ultrasound, and minor procedures. Medical education is a high priority at Clinica Esperanza, with supervision provided by both American and Honduran physicians and nurses. View photos of Clinica Esperanza.


The 2022 Roatan Learn and Serve Conference will be hosted at Clinica Esperanza and The Meridian Hotel. Dates are Oct 27 – Nov 1, 2022. Registration is open to healthcare personnel from the full spectrum of professions. View all the Conference Details and please Apply Now. I’ll look forward to learning and serving along with you in Roatan Honduras on Oct 27!


Susan Aycock, MD, MIH – International Cancer Fighter

August 12th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Grads In Action|


The Institute for International Medicine is proud to announce the most recent graduate of INMED’s Master’s Degree in International Health (MIH). Dr. Susan Aycock has been practicing family medicine for 30 years in rural North Carolina, encouraging her patients to take a more active role in their own health as she oversees their well-being from birth through hospice care.


Dr. Aycock describes desire to practice international medicine as a lifetime goal, a joyful experience, and how her plan is to continue working with international underserved populations even beyond the MIH degree requirements.


This INMED Master’s Degree is a 32-hour credit program that combines advanced academic skills with real-world international field experience. The MIH program offers three specialty tracts; International Medicine, International Nursing, and International Public Health. Each tract is designed to equip the graduates with the tools necessary to lead health education and disease prevention in low-resource and cross-cultural communities. The Institute of International Medicines’ MIH degree is unique in the arena of advanced education, with low tuition, exemplary faculty, and most importantly, supervised hands-on experience at INMED’s Training Sites located in marginalized communities all over the world.


Dr. Aycock took her INMED International Service-Learning Experience at Clinica Esperanza, located on Roatan Island, Honduras. In that setting, she improved her physician skills while also empowering local people with the tools necessary to prevent, detect and treat cervical cancer. Now, attention to cervical cancer is a normal element of women’s health in North America, but seldom addressed in low-resource, international communities. Dr. Aycock’s  MIH capstone – the creation of appropriate cervical cancer screening and treatment – has become just the next step in her “joy of this experience” to encourage health throughout the human experience.

Will You Focus Your Career On Low-Resource People?

July 30th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Grads In Action|


Will you focus your career on low-resource people? When asked this question at the beginning of their education, most healthcare professionals affirm the virtues of serving those who are forgotten. The energy of such vision helps propel them through the first obstacles of career development. But within a few years, this early altruism is often replaced by more self-focused priorities. The reasons are understandable: fatigue, litigation, financial debt, family needs.


But the warmth of that early nobility usually lingers. How can we regain that early excitement for the well-being of those who are poor, undereducated, minorities, disabled, elderly, veterans, refugees, migrants, chronically ill, and victims of war or disaster? How we answer this question may result not only in alleviation of their suffering but also in levity for our own hearts.


Begin with a simple “vision trip.” Visit a charity clinic in your hometown, interview a public health leader, or join in an international service team. In addition to the insights gained, you’re also likely to create valuable friendships with those who share your priorities. Next, make some achievable commitments. Schedule two days a month at that charity clinic or two weeks a year with that international service team. As you grow in experience, your goals may also expand.


As a resident physician in 2011, Datcha Dorvil was taking these first exploratory steps. Following her Professional Certificate Course in International Medicine and Public Health, Dr. Dorvil added a service-learning experience at Mseleni Hospital in South Africa. Her vision continued to grow, and for the last 10 years Dr. Dorvil has served native Americans with distinction through the United States Indian Health Service.


Will focusing your career on low-resource people be simple? Certainly not. Resources will be stretched. Staffing will be short. Hours will likely be long. Financial income may be a fraction of your peers. But the rewards – the occasional hearty thank you and that growing inner sense of altruism – will affirm your career focus on low-resource people.


Allie Judkins – 2022 Cross-Cultural Healthcare Service Award Recipient

July 15th, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Grads In Action|


This award recognizes one who demonstrates care and concern for culturally diverse communities and who gives selflessly of time and resources for their benefit.


The 2022 INMED Cross-Cultural Healthcare Service Award recipient is Allie Judkins. In 2007, she earned the INMED Professional Diploma in International Medicine and Public Health, serving at Kapuna Hospital in Papua New Guinea. Today, Dr. Judkins serves as Associate Director for Global Health Research in the Division of Neonatology at the University of Utah. There, she mentors health care professionals in health quality improvement projects overseas. Dr. Judkins works as content expert for neonatal resuscitation for the Global Section of the American Academy of Pediatrics and advises training and implementation teams on several continents. She also works at the Center for Medical Innovation at the University of Utah: This organization works to take ideas from “Bench to Bedside” through its maternal-child health promotion programs in India, Nepal, and Kenya.


Dr. Judkins continues to be instrumental in overcoming challenges in such low-income countries that result in improving access and quality of life and health. Throughout her career in global health Dr. Judkins continues to engage in the frontline of global medicine in India and Nepal, directing multiple maternal neonatal programs in collaboration with the government.

For You: Best Videos of the Humanitarian Health Conference

July 1st, 2022 by INMED
Posted in INMED Action Steps For You|


In June INMED hosted our 17th annual Humanitarian Health Conference in Kansas City. Our perennial theme is Equip, Connect, Go! Equip yourself with essential skills to promote the health of marginalized people. Connect with individuals and organizations with whom you can serve. And Go, overcoming obstacles that may limit your personal action.


If you missed an important session or were unable to join us in-person, we are happy to announce that we just launched the Virtual Humanitarian Heath Conference with video presentations from the 2022 HHC! These presentations are organized into three tracts:


Patient Care

  • “Cough in a Child,” Susan Aycock
  • “Typhoid Fever,” Sam Fabiano
  • “Undifferentiated fevers,” Cal Wilson
  • ”Vaccines for Global Use,” Fernando Merino


Community Heath

  • “Building a Sustainable In-Country MedSurg Project,” Ted Higgins
  • “Challenges in Sustainable Global Health,” Cal Wilson
  • “Development of Community Health Programs” Allie Judkins
  • “Overcoming the Inevitable Obstacles,” Barry Bacon
  • “Working with In-Country Medical Partners,” Ted Higgins


Career Development

  • Plenary Session “Go,” Jeff Colyer
  • “Career Development for Global Medical Professionals,” Barry Bacon
  • “Finding Your Calling,” John Clements
  • “The Power of Teams,” Jimmy Dodd
  • Plenary Session “Connect,” Sean Mark


Physicians can earn 6 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™ for CME and all participants can receive a certificate of completion that can be submitted for one’s respective profession continuing education. Registration for the 2022 Virtual Humanitarian Health Conference is $170. The virtual conference will close on July 31, 2022, so Register soon to view all the available presentations. Equip, Connect, Go!